For example, a community might wish to attract investment by means of a policy instrument such as lower tax rates or improved infrastructure. The chiefs represented their interests as being the general interests of society as a whole, and this enabled them to govern with the active consent of the commoners.’2 ‘A chief was forced to compete with other chiefs for the allegiance of his subjects. The role of African traditional leaders in South Africa has always been primarily that of oversight, facilitation and mediation within their communities. Local government in South Africa has undergone radical and almost continual The system works well because, contrary to what arrogant politicians, leftist control freaks and detractors of anything traditional may think, people and communities are of sound intellect, act rationally and know best how to identify and prioritise their needs. The significance of local government will be addressed. October 2009. Unlike the situation with respect to elected officials, where the community has to put up with them till the next election, the traditional leader may be recalled at any time. This has prompted the author to use this South African concept as well as the first experiences with the implementation of the new local government dispensation as a case study.The importance of the book thus lies in the fact that it produces an institutional model for developmental local government that is not only based on development and decentralisation theories but is also tested in practice. Given the above, the PSC decided to assess the role played by Public Service leadership in promoting intergovernmental relations in the three spheres of government through planning and coordination of the development This article focuses on the development of leadership capacity in local government in South Africa. SUMMARY The Constitution of South Africa, 1996, (the Constitution) is the supreme law of the country and its ultimate goal is to improve the quality of life of all citizens and free the potential of each person. But it is now a universal precept that equality for all be respected as a fundamental right of democracy and human decency. Not everyone is, however, prepared to recognise them as role players. We realise the importance of effective leadership in delivering the core local government mandate and get into the trenches to work with municipalities in dealing with their leadership and management development challenges by: Providing local government specific leadership development programmes to both political and management leadership spheres local government in focusing resources into local communities to facilitate development and economic growth. When the transition to democracy took place, South Africa inherited a dysfunctional local govern- The role and importance of the institution of traditional leadership in local government affairs. The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law in the land. A brief historical overview of traditional leadership in South Africa. 2 J.B. Peires, The house of Phalo: a history of the Xhosa people in the days of their independence (Ravan Press, 1981), 41. There is a direct link between Good Governance, effective leadership and economic prosperity. […] In other words, pressure seems to bring about results. South African communities, has led to the need for capacitated municipal institutions that will improve the quality of life for our people. Godfrey Callaway, Pioneers in Pondoland, The Lovedale Press, 1930. Patience, a key to great leadership. There is a reasonable understanding on the roles of municipal councillors but traditional councils seemed not to be clear about their roles and policy issues in general. Just as the system of co-operative government was developed in acknowledgement of the diversity of the needs and concerns of the population of South Africa, so the Constitution established the right of communities living under emphasised this point by stating with respect to his topic - ‘The evolution of a democratic system’: Scholars acknowledge that democracy is a process. 5.9 OTHER ROLE PLAYERS IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICE DELIVERY 100 5.9.1 Municipal infrastructure support agency 101 5.9.2 South African Local Government Association 101 5.10 SERVICE DELIVERY CHALLENGES FACING LOCAL GOVERNMENT 102 5.11 CONCLUSION 103 REFERENCES 103 CHAPTER 6 N Tshishonga STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT … Act No.56 of 2003. Any law or conduct that is in conflict with the Constitution is invalid. South Africa: University of Cape Town Press Brynard (1996:44) in Kakumba and Nsingo, Journal of Public Administration, Vol 43. South Africa has seen remarkable improvements in the transformation of the institution of traditional leadership in terms of composition, functions and legal manifestations. Therefore, local government excellence that manifests in effective and efficient service provision will not materialise if this situation of inadequacy prevails, posing a comprehensive challenge to municipalities in the Free State. It is significant that when addressing the National House of Traditional Leaders in Parliament on the 8th May 2000 when he was Deputy President of the country, Mr Jacob Zuma (Nxamalala!) The downside of this is that, as the party leaders are very far distanced from local communities, they are not conversant with their concerns and unaware of their changing needs. Mkhize made the remarks during a meeting on Tuesday with the leader of Moral Regeneration Movement (MRM) ... South African Government News. Our new series will explain the powers, duties and responsibilities granted to local government by the Constitution of South Africa. 1 The Rev. Society, culture and democracy are dynamic and not static. traditional leaders in South Africa is sustainable. Leadership and service. The Institute for Democracy in South Africa promotes accountability as an important part of protecting publi c rights. The constitutional and legislative frameworks that underpin governance in municipalities are identified and explained. The South African Local Government Association [SALGA] is the official representative of local government. On such account in South Africa where local citizens interest to participate in local government administration has actually turned out to be synonymous with genuine administration (John, 2006). When this happens politicians will not be able to ride roughshod over the interests of the people. Executive elections and decisions on policies and programmes happen at provincial or national general meetings. While the demands expressed in the context of these protests sometimes relate to the national or provincial tiers of government, in most cases they accentuate service delivery issues that belong in the sphere of local government. This demand also arises from the communities which have been promised a better life by the new democratic government of South Africa. 2.5.4.4 South Africa _____ 25 2.6 Legislative Frameworks for Traditional Leadership and Local Government in South Africa 27 2.6.1 The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa of 1996 (Act 108 of 1996) _____ 27 As a check against abuse of power, corruption or dereliction of duty, once a traditional leader has been recognised as the appropriate person to serve at local government level, he or she should be subject to a recall mechanism. South Africa’s first democratic government inherited a fragmented, unaccountable and racially divided ... largely without local government, and the services they provided were determined by the apartheid state. endstream endobj 3133 0 obj <>stream All vestiges of discrimination against women in favour of men must be totally obliterated in whatever form they might manifest themselves. Each was governed by a white-elected provincial council with limited legislative powers. Local governments were designed with the purpose of creating order in ways that serve the general public democratically. Chapter 7 of the Constitution deals with local government and sets out its overall objectives. T~E ROLE OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP IN MODERN DEMOCRATIC SOUTH AFRICA: SERVICE PROVISIONING IN RURAL AREAS BY PHUTI SOLOMON MATLOA: STUDENT NO: 204000139 Submitted in Part Fulfilment for the Requirements for the Degree The point here is that the parameters of local government in rural areas should not be too narrowly defined. It is a necessary though not a sufficient condition of efficient service delivery and the socio-economic development of communities in these areas. The king was the “very personification of government” and the symbol of national unity.’4. Outcomes The student will be able to: Describe the concept of LED in the context of South African local government and according to the rationale for LED and the economic requirements for LED for sustainable growth and development. and structure of local government, it is important to define local government and understand the meaning of local government democracy and values. 4.5.2 Governance under South African Colonial Regime Rule: 1915-1988 188 4.5.3 Governance in Post-Independence Namibia: 1990 to Date 191 4.6 Governance and Service Delivery in Namibia 193 GGA sourced data from, among others, Statistics South Africa, auditor-general reports, National Treasury, and the 2013-2015 Gaffney Local Government in South Africa Yearbook. This means the colonial government could rule African subjects by executive decree, rather than the normal legislative process.19 In most parts of South Africa, the customary powers of traditional leaders remained more or less intact.20 The Orange Free State was an exception to this rule. important during this period when the African Continent is looking upon South Africa to host a successful 2010 FIFA World Cup. Within South African Local Government MM Mehlape University of Limpopo, South Africa Abstract: Politics-administration interface is perceived as the heart of practice of public administration and aims at fostering relationships between administrators on one hand and political leaders … The paper illustrates that policies and laws of socio-economic reform have been introduced in democratic South Africa. If their role were to be sufficiently appreciated and correctly understood, service delivery could be enhanced in a way that would surpass the standards of metropolitan local municipalities in this regard. Some of the changes have been impelled by the emancipation of women from the stranglehold of traditional patriarchy. Irrespective of one’s strict adherence to the principles of democratic governance, traditional leaders, traditional institutions and the cultures of traditional governance cannot simply be wished away or obliterated without undermining the social-cultural cohesion and stability of communities in these areas. Their focus is their “ Right to Know programs” (IDASA, 2012 ). Local municipalities join their provincial association. For the execution of his orders he depended on the commoners themselves.’3 And again: ‘… absolute domination was no part of the Xhosa political ethic. It is interesting that the government seems inclined to respond to such pressures with ever more commitments to address the grievances expressed. The role and importance of the institution of traditional leadership in local government affairs. South Africa is the only case in Africa where op-position parties happen to control some of the local governments. The full participation of women entails the unleashing of intellectual and physical resources which have hitherto been excluded or marginalised in the historical development of rural communities. Chiefs were therefore constantly preoccupied with retaining the loyalty of their followers.’5. xœ•VmoÚ0þŽÄ¸¶4ÜرDš&ñ֖ hÕ±MÚ´YI!„.¤«úïw琖°˜"E~9?÷Üs縸…÷ï/&ýÑ. However, in the rural areas, this has not been the case, apparently because people in these areas have not been as vociferous as their metropolitan counterparts in articulating their concerns. Even in developed democracies the challenge has always been to find ways of improving the system, underpinned by the principle that the people have the right to decide on issues that affect them. It is therefore encouraging that by and large this precept is accepted by traditional leaders. Johafl[\('s!J\lrg j Local Government: Municipal StrtlC!ures Act I 17 or 1948 171 ¹ é ô 6 Contralesa, The Custodian, Hansard Retroprint, October 2002. This basically means that, should the community be dissatisfied with the performance or general conduct of the representative traditional leader, it would exercise the recall mechanism via consensus-driven deliberations, which should result in a unanimous resolution in this regard. The notion of public service being associated with leadership is widely discredited, not only in South Africa but also in other countries. Developmental local government requires political leadership which creates opportunities to account to the community over and above regular elections. Moreover, in many cases, even as they start out as elected leaders, these elected representatives soon degenerate into de facto apparatchiks deployed by their political parties. This would ensure effective and direct accountability to an extent which would not be possible within the conventional democratic process. In short they know best what is in their best interests. South African municipalities experience serious challenges in dealing with the interface between politicians and officials. This direct, participatory principle of traditional African governance, married with the electoral principle of western democracy would mutually reinforce and deepen democracy. Paper on Traditional Leadership and Governance:2003). Important considerations relating to traditional leadership from a South African perspective. Throughout the country, especially in and around metropolitan areas, spontaneous service delivery protests are happening with increasing frequency. Thank you. The administrator of each province was appointed by the central government and presided over an executive committee representing the majority party in the council. There are a number of benefits that would result from this, foremost among them being the fact that the chief would refer any issues regarding service delivery to the community for its consideration and deliberation. Sometimes this happens without any consultation with the affected communities. Proper distribution of municipality capacity and improved levels of service delivery will be maintained if other spheres of government play an instrumental role for local government to perform. In Switzerland today, at the level of local government, communities are entitled to hold referenda on issues that concern them directly. This study focused on analysing the principle of separation of powers at local government level, while navigating through the political and administrative dichotomy in South Africa. The discourse on local democracy in Africa, also takes into account the phenomenon of traditional leadership that is constitutionally recognised in South Africa and the role and functioning of traditional leaders in democratic government. The important thing about this mechanism is that the power vests with the people directly. iv . South Africa’s Medium Term Strategic Framework (2014 to 2019) identifies the following sub-outcomes to ensure a responsive, accountable, effective and efficient developmental local government system. The severity of patriarchal forms has varied from one traditional community to another. 1.1 Co-ChairpersonsMinister of Mineral Resources and EnergyMinister of Tourism1.2 MembersMinistry of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural DevelopmentMinistry of CommunicationsMinistry of Cooperative Governance and Traditional AffairsMinistry of Environment, Forestry and FisheriesMinistry of Employment and LabourMinistry of FinanceMinistry of Higher Education, Science and TechnologyMinistry of Human Settlements, Water and SanitationMinistry of International Relations and CooperationMinistr… The necessity of a good leader is his patience. Ethical leadership needed in local government Wednesday, June 20, 2018 Concerned at the number of councillors being killed, Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (CoGTA) Minister Zweli Mkhize says local government could benefit from a sensitisation programme on ethical leadership. The State of Local Government Report in South Africa, 2009 This underscores the case for traditional leaders being accommodated in the structures of local government in the rural areas of South Africa. 46.7K likes. Municipalities are responsible for the following functions: … These protests are sometimes accompanied by violence and destruction of property. If you know how local government is supposed to work, you will find it easier to identify when it is not working, or when something is wrong. This is participatory democracy at its best, as opposed to the dictatorial majoritarian tendencies which characterise conventional democratic systems. Local government should not be restricted to matters technically defined as local, lest the door be closed upon innovative and creative thinking which might enrich policy making at both provincial and national levels. In exceptionally difficult cases, the community might invite another traditional authority to mediate. The Effects of Political Leadership on Public Administration Within South African Local Government 327 inevitable conflicts of interests and values or con-ceptions of the good that seem to arise among us without having constantly to take up arms against each other. In my opinion, it has to be accepted that communities know best what their priorities are, or ought to be. The significance of public sector leadership becomes apparent in the light of the important role of the public sector in providing services to the society at large. The complexity of the public sector, the variety of leadership challenges within, and the many competing views of leadership mean that extensive evidence is diffi cult to obtain. The administrator of each province was appointed by the central government and presided over an executive committee representing the majority party in the council. Given this historical context, it becomes of crucial importance to locate and define the role of traditional authorities today in co-existence with or as a substitute for elected local representatives. Building on the success of MPAT the DPME in collaboration with the DCoG, South African Cities Network (SACN), South African Local Government Association (SALGA), relevant sector departments and the Provincial Departments responsible for Local Government developed the Local Government Management Improvement Model (LGMIM). It should also be possible for rural communities to contribute, through their representatives, to wider policy debates, at provincial and national level. Whatever structure one chose, power would have to be vested in the people, as is consistent with democratic principles. ÷?BSpýûhc lgpGßp3uÉ%]­ny©Ã%äŸ" responds to local needs, conditions and capacities. W­«Å—j‰`ɳb‡ù=PzX›Ñâ-ç“ûÔízœl]Ww£[þ7nýÅÁ3O³AâÉïpi¦˜@D(6®~zèõð`ãd—ñBþ˜`ù«Õk ì½ *ù6¨9£Å‰Œ*93ZœÈh$QÊxë4M*LœUì¿ð:Ç?qCªÞ$–¦8Ìx±ô¯iό«g½-:îý¸âž{{Ñ?çÑôúbÍ$/™ýg\õk¸òÓp­® rYeL In 1997, the South African Local Government Association (SALGA) was recognised for the purposes of fulfilling this role. However, such leadership is rare in the public sector, not only in the South African public service, but also in most countries. South Africa - South Africa - Local government: Local government was established in 1909 when the four former colonies became provinces. The Deputy Minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (CoGTA), Mr Andries Nel held a fruitful meeting with the Chief Executive Officer of The Ethics Institute (TEI), Prof Deon Rossouw today, 05 … In striving to achieve this goal, he Constitutiont established (among others) the local sphere of government with the objectives of This paper aims to explore the problematic of public policies and leadership challenges for socio-economic transformation in South Africa. Where this is disputed, it should not be external parties, but rather the relevant community which takes the final decision. The magazine of local government. Where decisions are taken by elected representatives, projects are very often imposed on communities by people who purport to know what is good for them. of understanding the importance of sound decision making in leadership recruitment in local government. Both in South Africa and in the world at large, there has come to light a disturbingly large number of corrupt behaviours by government officials, public administrators and local authorities over the years. 3.6.9 Governance structures in South Africa 75 3.6.9.1 Public Service Commission 75 3.6.9.2 Public Protector 76 3.6.9.3 Auditor-General 77 3.6.10 Batho Pele Principles 77 3.7 LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNACE IN AFRICA 78 3.8 UBUNTU IN AFRICAN LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE 80 3.9 LINK BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE IN SERVICE DELIVERY 82 It makes an in-depth analysis of traditional leadership in the local governance process, both in the pre- and post-democratic local government dispensation. Lack of trust in the leadership relationships amongst political and … It is often said … Backhouse [a missionary] reported that this happened every year among the Ngqika, and that the chiefs were not always victorious. In a study conducted by Miller (2005:104), most senior managers in the South African public sector stated that they have a participative style of … Local government – Key medium-term goals for 2019. Important considerations relating to traditional leadership from a South African perspective. In my opinion, it would deepen democracy in traditional communities in the rural areas of South Africa if, at local government level, traditional communities were entitled to choose governance according to the principles of direct democracy rather than representative democracy, which would mean that they could choose traditional decision-making processes where decisions are made by the people on an issue-by-issue basis with traditional leaders facilitating the process. Number 2, June 2008 Powell, D, 2009. Help FMF promote the rule of law, personal liberty, and economic freedom, government; traditional leadership; service delivery, Minimum wage laws lead to surging youth unemployment, Indien sosialisme ons voorland is, wag daar gróót moeilikheid, Why SA should reform indigenous common law for the modern era, In keeping SAA, government shows where its priorities lie. It is in this context that the question of the role of traditional leaders in the rural areas becomes germane. Those ... leadership, skills deficits, insufficient attention to the role Historically, traditional leadership has acted as the glue that binds communities together . SALGA is made up of nine provincial associations. Lest the past be romanticised, it has to be acknowledged that there have also been cases of aberration from or distortion of these norms, with negative implications for affected communities. Deputy Minister Nel emphasises the importance ethical leadership in local government. Introduction. As local government is the sphere of government that is the closest to the people and provides services to communities, it is important to understand what this level of government is all about. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of community participation in development projects at local level and the study was guided by four specific objectives which were In short they know best what is in their best interests. Introduction. Traditional leaders live in the midst of the communities that they serve and are accessible to community members at all times; therefore their participation in local government would mean that government would be brought to the very doorstep of the community. In the case of excessive exactions, there might even be an open resort to arms. êèEW)ÕI2çã§#xBþL”*£§Uñ®}Á®C…ì;Ç-y“^E²Möü$XmùŠ¡Ž’Ÿ It can thus be seen that the ever present threat of migration has in the past acted as an effective check against tyrannical tendencies on the part of traditional leaders. The indicators were equally weighted although not equally distributed, with the service delivery category comprising eight indicators, while economic development had four and administration three. The involvement of traditional leadership at local government level in rural areas will help to achieve this end. While this may be a painstakingly slow and laborious process, ultimately it results in decisions which will be owned by the entire community. This should not lull government into indifference towards these areas. Each was governed by a white-elected provincial council with limited legislative powers. Supreme Chief of the African people. This is certainly one of the primary reasons strong ethics are paramount when it comes to overseeing the activities of local government. It is also the right way to go if we wish to improve service delivery and development in such areas. This means that, conceptually, it is not an accomplished fact. Traditional communities and institutions have had to adapt to change, though some have yet to embrace this reality. Powers and functions of municipalities. This underscores the case for traditional leaders being accommodated in the structures of local government in the rural areas of South Africa. Traditional leaders and communities who do not take cognisance of this will find that the quality of service delivery in their localities is not optimised and their communities do not develop to their full potential. But this is not enough. There is also the risk (especially in the context of proportional representation) that elected representatives are more accountable to their party hierarchies than to the people who elected them. In former times, dissatisfied subjects have voted with their feet, migrating beyond the reach of such tyrants, and re-establishing themselves within the jurisdictions of neighbouring chiefs whose rule was more to their liking. This aspect of the process em-bodies undeniable opportunities and challenges At the time of writing, Lara Natalini was a Research Fellow at the Africa Institute of South Africa. • Members of society have sustainable and reliable access to basic services. and give effect to the changes needed. According to tradition, the traditional leader would preside over the discussion of issues pertaining to service delivery and he or she would encourage people to identify and prioritise community needs. Transformational leadership in the South African public service after the April 2009 national elections Authors: Manasseh M. Mokgolo1 Patricia Mokgolo2 Mike Modiba3 Affiliations: 1Department of Human Resources Management, University of South Africa, South Africa 2Learning and Development Unit, Tromso Management Consultants CC, Boyne, South Africa These findings also reinforce the importance of the ACELG/LGMA National Workforce Strategy 2013 -2020 (2013), which provides a comprehensive, consistent national approach to local government workforce planning and development. “Ethical leadership is important as it can lead to good governance, whilst also ensuring efficient and effective functioning municipalities”, said Deputy Minister Nel. To quote Jeff Peires once more, concerning the Xhosa kingdom: ‘Desertion or the threat of desertion was the most common and most probably the most effective means of resistance open to commoners. Lack of effective leadership is the main cause for Africa’s lagging behind from the rest of the world. The difference between African and Asian countries, many of which started their history as states at the same point in the 1960s, is striking. The power of any chief was limited by what his subordinates were prepared to accept. Leadership in South Africa . This debate does not An earlier and shorter version of r~lis paper appears in Constitutiun and Law lV: Collo­ q!lium on Local Cowrnment Law: Seminar Report 2002 No 14 Konr,HJ-Adenauer-Sriflung. This would involve the exercise of traditional and uniquely African forms of consensus-driven decision- making. 2. They are becoming more the norm than the exception. The political position of the chief was too weak for the dominant ideology to take the form of a naked assertion of authority. 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