They’ve also passed on their swimming ways to a new generation of lions. Dr Kirsty Upton and Brighid Ó Dochartaigh, British Geological Survey, UK Dr Imogen Bellwood-Howard, Institute of Development Studies, UK Please cite this page as: Upton, Ó Dochartaigh & Bellwood-Howard, 2018. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Cameroon 2005). Water dependency of the prey species and the distance of the kills to water were negatively associated. Larger species generally have a larger home range to satisfy their requirements (Haskell et al. We have empowered, educated and inspired. Cameroon - Cameroon - Resources and power: Cameroon is endowed with abundant mineral wealth, but meaningful exploitation has been slow to materialize. I recently spent a few days following the lions at #DubaPlains and filming their swimming and wading in the water. Box plots show ranges (whiskers), 25% and 75% quartiles (boxes), and medians. 2005; Valeix et al. We found that lion predation pressure is not distributed uniformly over the area but is higher closer to water holes. Work of the lion is to provide protection to the territory while the lionesses hunt. 2007) where lions exhibited a seasonal pattern in prey selection as a response to the lower availability of prey in the rainy season when prey species are spread over a larger area and no longer concentrate around limited water points. Photo: Flickr. Water-dependent and water-independent species are found at different positions in the landscape, with water-dependent species closer to water (Redfern et al. Lion [Panthera leo] Best places to see Lion in Botswana Lions are commonly seen in most parts of Botswana. However, you will notice that the Bushmen people (also known as the San people), have found a great way to adapt to the harsh environment. To learn more, visit. 4.3.3 Water sources 73 4.3.4 Piped distribution systems 74. The lions have learnt to thrive there - mainly due to the large buffalo population. Several studies show that female lions (Panthera leo) generally take medium-sized species such as plains zebra (Equus burchellii) and blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), whereas males prey on larger species such as African buffalo (Syncerus caffer—Funston et al. Having once tried to give my cat a bath, I have the scratch marks to prove most cats have a real aversion to taking a dip, but these Botswana lions have learned to dog paddle their way across the rivers and wetlands of the Okavango Delta. They are often found lying on their backs with their paws overturned. The question remains whether the locations of lion kills are influenced by the availability of water sources, and if this effect is due to the attraction of wildlife to water and hence the higher prey densities there, or if it is caused by the increased cover for stalking lions around these water sources. 1995). Type of water source (natural or artificial) or random point was included as a fixed factor, together with several other fixed factors—feeding type, digestion type (ruminant or nonruminant), and season—and the covariates body mass and water dependency. (2005) showed that certain landscape elements increase prédation risk: prey vulnerability is more important to lions than prey availability. To illustrate this effect we identified 2 groups of kills, 1 group relatively close to water and the other group further from water. Hence, we expect kills of water-dependent species to be closer to water than kills of species not dependent on water. 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2008). Bibliographic reference: Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ and Bellwood-Howard I. 2009), and prey assemblage (Hayward et al. Number of reported kills by lions of prey species that comprise >5% of all reported kills (see Table 1), estimated prey population sizes from 2002 to 2006 surveys, and the expected number of prey killed calculated from the survey proportions, in the Klaserie Nature Reserve. Predation is known to influence the behavior of prey species (Fischhoff et al. Hence, kills of smaller, grazing ruminants are expected to be found closer to water than those of larger, browsing nonruminants. Some efforts being made to better Cameroon’s water quality have proven to be successful. By taking a look at a lion pride living in Zambia, our National Geographic Kids’ lion primary resource explains how these animals work together to survive the harsh environment of Africa’s savannah. A. F. Bini L. M.. Redfern J. V. Grant R. Biggs H. Getz W. M.. Sinclair A. R. E. Mduma S. Brashares J. 2003). 2007), but feeding type was not related to the type of the water source that was closest to the kill site. (2003); the lower the value, the lower the chance of finding the species far from water sources. The lower the odds-ratio, the closer to water a species was found. Study area.—To test these hypotheses we analyzed the spatial distribution of lion kills in Klaserie Private Nature Reserve in South Africa (24.203°S, 31.179°E), which forms part of the Associated Private Nature Reserve abutting and contiguous with the Kruger National Park. 2007; Hopcraft et al. 2002; Redfern et al. Lions have long been killed in rituals of bravery, as hunting trophies and for their medicinal and magical powers. 2008), their density, spatial distribution, and habitat selection (Creel et al. Malware exploits these vulnerabilities to bypass your computer's security safeguards to infect your device. 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2008). These forests provide a source of livelihoods for communities and habitat for over 9,000 plant species, about 900 bird species, and roughly 320 mammals — including the critically endangered western lowland gorilla and the endangered chimpanzee. Our results indicate a similar prey selection, with species such as zebra, wildebeest, and waterbuck as the positively selected species. In some areas, livestock predation remains a severe problem. The spatial distribution of lion kills in relation to the distribution of their prey, and the traits of the prey species that determine their distribution, are not clear. Therefore, the composition of lion prey (Table 2) was dependent on the proximity to water. Our results are surprising because the density of water sources is very high in Klaserie (100% of the Klaserie area is within 3 km from a water point), in contrast with Kruger National Park where 92% of the area is within 5 km of water (Redfern et al. The male lions have a long mane of hair covering their neck. This variable is a better classification of the spatial distribution of a species around water than classifying the species as either water-dependent or water-independent. In the most comprehensive analysis, Hopcraft et al. Prey composition deviated significantly from prey availability (χ26 = 562.32, P < 0.001; Table 2) for prey species that comprised >5% of potential prey numbers. All rights reserved. The last column was calculated from the distance to water odds-ratio taken from Redfern et al. To compare the difference in vegetation density between artificial water points and sites along natural water sources, we also determined NDVI values at these artificial water points and compared those with an equal number of randomly located sites 150 m from the middle of the river, which was assumed to represent the riverine vegetation. In this ministry there are two departments in charge of water: one for management and the other for the mobilization of water resources. Sometimes the shrimpers operate off the Sanaga River. 2006). 2007a), sometimes modified by environmental factors such as rainfall that affect the body condition of prey (Funston and Mills 2006; Mills et al. The northern province in Cameroon, Bénoué, hosts the largest hippo population in the entire West-Central region of Africa. 2003). For lion prey in the Klaserie Nature Reserve, estimated population density (individuals/km2, from mean survey values from 2002 to 2006), percentage each species comprised of reported lion kills (2002–2007, n = 215), Jacobs’ index (D) for prey selection (+ values) or avoidance (− values), adult body mass, and digestion and feeding types. We separated the effect of water supply on predation by lions from the effect of cover provided by vegetation associated with rivers. Exploits take advantage of vulnerabilities in software. We argue that the cascading impact of lions on local mammal assemblages is spatially heterogeneous. We expect that in areas with a larger water availability gradient, the dependency of prey species on water will influence their predation risk more strongly. Some plants increase their water content by 25 to 40 percent, so when the gemsbok feed late at night or early in the morning, the plants provide them with both food and water. LION WALKS Due to increasing controversy about the ethics of lion walks and certain other "animal encounter" activities and the practices of those offering them within the Victoria Falls area, Zambiatourism.com will no longer be featuring such activities. The larger buffalo also was selected, but in general, larger species were avoided. Apparently, herbivores are distributed over Klaserie indifferent of their feeding type. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995; Winnie et al. Discover Cameroonian animals you've never heard of, and learn amazing facts about the ones you have! Also, other landscape elements can increase predation risk by lions, such as erosion gullies, the availability of kopjes (Hopcraft et al. Water use can include water used and then returned to its source (renewable resource). 2018. Water points were classified as artificial (catchment dam, pump, or mill) or natural (one of the rivers). Lion kills were spatially clustered and were significantly different from a random distribution (Z = −39.67, P < 0.01). 2), and kills were found closer to artificial water points than to natural river sources (Wald χ21 = 617.74, P < 0.001). Composition of prey differed significantly (P < 0.01) from availability. Perhaps the high density of water points and the year-round supply of water, creating a low gradient in water availability, are the reasons that these factors were unimportant in determining the distribution of herbivores. Mills M. G. L. Biggs H. C. Richardson P. R. K.. Hayward M. W. O'Brien J. Hofmeyr M. Kerley G. I. H.. Hopcraft J. G. C. Sinclair A. R. E. Packer C.. Lehmann M. B. Funston P. J. Owen C. R. Slotow R.. Palomares F. Delibes M. Revilla E. Calzada J. Fedriani J. M.. Patterson B. D. Kasiki S. M. Selempo E. Kays R. W.. Rangel T.F.L.V.B. Seasonal Water Sources. The Klaserie River runs through the area and Olifants River forms the northern boundary of the conservation area. 2005). The lions’ exploits and their eventual demise became legend, and Patterson became famous for ending it all. The pink shrimp is more available to the shrimpers at a depth of … It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995). Lion kills were significantly closer to water than expected based on a random distribution of the kills (generalized linear model; Wald χ21 = 12.06, P < 0.001; Fig. This analysis yields chi-square values for each prey species, and the discrepancies between observed and expected values (residuals) were tested for each of the individual species when the overall chi-square test reported significant deviations from expectation (Siegel and Castellan 1988). Water-dependent and water-independent species are found at different positions in the landscape, with water-dependent species closer to water (Redfern et al. 2003), which influenced the composition of lion prey. The presence of natural water sources therefore can influence the location of lion kill sites (Hopcraft et al. I recently spent a few days following the lions at #DubaPlains and filming their swimming and wading in the water. Differences in prey selection (Jacobs index) could not be explained by the water dependency of the species (odds-ratio: rs = −0.123, n = 12, P > 0.05) or the density of the species (rs = −0.212, n = 12, P > 0.05). They are not connected to any other water source. Our finding that lion kills are closer to water than expected on the basis of a random distribution could affect not only prey distribution (Valeix et al. It was a scene I first filmed seven years ago and some of the cubs from that time are still splashing around today. Predation risk from lions (Panthera leo) has been linked to habitat characteristics and availability and traits of prey. These results indicate that water was the major factor influencing lion prey choice and prey location, and that vegetation cover was unimportant in the selection of the kill site at the scale measured by ASTER. 2001; Hayward and Kerley 2005; Hayward et al. – Raven A. Rentas. 2007a, 2007b; Mills and Shenk 1992; Mills et al. 2002). The country has a vast network of rivers within its diverse and numerous climatic regions. The odds-ratio was available for most species (94% of all 215 kills), but the water dependency of the missing 13 kills (5 species) were estimated using the expert opinion of the Klaserie Warden (for instance, the water dependency of warthog [Phacochoerus africanus] is characterized as intermediate to that of impala and water-buck). The current shortage of foreign currency to import modern technology or spare parts for the pump stations. Well when swimming is the only way to get to their next meal some big cats in Botswana have adapted to the life aquatic. 2003), and therefore local differences in community assemblages can lead to important changes at the system level through cascading effects, such as has been reported elsewhere as a result of predation (Carpenter et al. For each location of a lion kill the shortest (straight-line) distance between that location and the nearest artificial and natural water point was calculated using ArcGIS (version 9.2; ESRI Inc., Redlands, California). Kalahari Lion The Kalahari lion is a sub-species that behaves and looks different from other lions as a result of its adaptation to the Kalahari environment. 2003). 1998, 2001; Lehmann et al. Always try and be in the park as early as possible as this will undoubtedly help in you getting that sighting. The lions of the Kalahari Desert have become a popular interest and in researching the behaviour of this specific group, it has become clear that they are well defined from their relatives residing in more “moderate” environments, such as the safe havens of South African Game Reserves. He even wrote a book about his adventures titled The Man-Eaters of Tsavo, published in 1907. It was later the basis for a handful of different movies. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Cameroon. Carpenter S. R. Brock W. A. Cole J. J. Kitchell J. F. Pace M. L.. Creel S. Winnie J.Jr. It was a scene I first filmed seven years ago and some of the cubs from that time are still splashing around today. We tested our assumption that vegetation density would be higher around riverine areas compared to artificial water points. The study area is dominated by open woodland, with mopane (Colophosper-mum mopane) and red bush willow (Combretum apiculatum) as dominant tree species. This also might explain why we did not find the seasonal pattern in lion kills documented in other studies (Patterson et al. Water use can include water used and then returned to its source (renewable resource). (2008) showed that species modify their activity, herd size, and drinking frequency at water holes, probably in response to the higher predation risks perceived there. The distribution of prey species is dependent on such prey traits as water dependency, body size, or feeding type (food habits). When lion kills were encountered—identified by the presence of lions or lion tracks at the kill site—they were recorded by Klaserie staff members in a central database; data recorded included date, location (global positioning system coordinates), and species. These rivers are part of the world's freshwater streams with large biodiversity and importance to local communities. Large differences in the composition of lion prey are due to differences in prey availability, prey mass, lion sex and pride structure, and cultural differences, that is, differences in prey choice between prides through specialization (Funston et al. Hence, the impact of lions on population sizes of species in local assemblages has a spatial component. The last 2 columns represent the prey composition at 2 distances from the nearest water source. Kills were classified with respect to feeding type (Table 1), digestion type, and body mass. The herd size and structure, behavior, and time of drinking by prey, and the presence of other herbivores are important factors in decreasing predation risk when drinking (Valeix et al. 2009) but also the local community structure of the mammal assemblage (Mills and Shenk 1992; Owen-Smith and Mills 2006; Power 2002). The differences in distances between kill sites and random sites did not differ for artificial water points and natural rivers (Wald χ21= 0.316, P > 0.10), indicating that water is the main factor in determining the kill location and that vegetation density around riverine areas does not have any effect on the kill location. Lions selected medium-sized prey species. 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