Items are rated for frequency of occurrence on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (never) to 5 (always). Riddle, D. L., & Stratford, P. W. (1999). Use of an overall score that adds ratings with different meanings having no common reference point may not be appropriate as interpretation is difficult and very little functional information is provided about the individual patient (Kornetti et al., 2004). Physical Rehabilitations Outcome Measures A Guide to Enhanced Clinical Decision-Making., 2nd ed. Validation of the Berg Balance Scale as a predictor of length of stay and discharge destination in stroke rehabilitation. Bogner et al. Levin, H. S., O’Donnell, V. M., & Grossman, R. G. (1979). Murray et al. Scores between 66 and 75 are considered borderline-abnormal while scores above 75 fall into the range considered normal within the reference group (Levin et al., 1979; van Baalen et al., 2003). Assessment with the MPAI is intended to yield information applicable to the development and ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation services within this population (J. L. Malec, MD., 2003). Glasgow Coma Scale: to sum or not to sum? Tyson, S. F., & Brown, P. (2014). Language-Cognitive Disorganization Following Closed Head Injury: A Conceptualization. The 13 physical items are based on those found on the Barthel Index (BI), while the cognitive items are intended to assess social interaction, problem-solving and memory. Clock-drawing tests themselves have been assessed as acceptable to patients, easily scored and less affected by education, age and other non-dementia variables than other very brief measures of cognitive impairment (Lorentz et al., 2002) and would have little effect on the simplicity and accessibility of the test. In addition, GOS outcome categories are often expressed as a dichotomy: poor or unfavourable outcome versus independence or favourable outcome. Fall Risk Evaluation Tool for Acquired Brain Injury: A Validation of a Multifactorial Assessment A Pilot Study A Master Thesis Project Tanya Orgill Amanda Woods Josué Zamora A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Occupational Therapy School of Health and Natural Sciences Dominican University of California San Rafael, California May 2014 Given the lack of data completeness found, postal administration of the SF-36 may not be appropriate for use among older adults. Predictors of handicap situations following post-stroke rehabilitation. Resources: Brain Injury Assessment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81(12 Suppl 2), S15-20. Our person-centred ABI approach, enables us to work with individuals at a pace that feels comfortable with them. Healey, C., Osler, T. M., Rogers, F. B., Healey, M. A., Glance, L. G., Kilgo, P. D., Shackford, S. R., & Meredith, J. W. (2003). ↑ Verplancke D, Snape S, Salisbury CF, Jones PW, Ward AB. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation, 10(1), 35-50. Individuals who sustain a TBI, regardless of the level of injury, often report fatigue as a constant or recurrent problem post injury (Belmont et al., 2006; Borgaro et al., 2005). Social Indicators Research, 38(3), 275-301. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(4), 416-425. The Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LCFS) was intended to provide a description of eight stages of cognitive function through which individuals with brain injuries typically progress during their stay in hospital and acute rehabilitative care (Hagen, 1982; Hagen et al., 1972). Administering the scale requires little time and can be completed in less than 30 minutes. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(7), 773-776. (1998). Agitation following traumatic head injury: equivocal evidence for a discrete stage of cognitive recovery. Outcomes in the first 5 years after traumatic brain injury. The Participation Index may be administered independently to provide a quick evaluation of participation outcomes. The score of the 3MS ranges from 0 to 100 with a standardized cut-off point of 79/80 for the presence of cognitive impairment. Both forms (i.e., self-completed or interview) take less than 10 minutes to complete (Hartley et al., 1995). Individuals within any single outcome category represent a range of abilities (Jennett & Bond, 1975). After making adjustment for items appearing in more than one index, subscale raw scores are summed to provide an overall adaptability index score. Dikmen et al. The scale focuses on how head injury had affected function in major life areas and is not intended to provide detailed information on specific deficits (Wilson et al., 1998). Shukla, D., Devi, B. I., & Agrawal, A. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 66(1), 35-37. Assessment and prognosis of coma after head injury. Wilson, J. T., Pettigrew, L. E., & Teasdale, G. M. (2000). Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 24(4), 274-280. Kwon, S., Hartzema, A. G., Duncan, P. W., & Min-Lai, S. (2004). Use of the Disability Rating Scale Recovery curve as a predictor of psychosocial outcome following closed-head injury. (2001). Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83(8), 1035-1042. Physical Therapy, 76(6), 576-583. Levels of impairment have also been classified as none (24-30), mild (18-24), and severe (0-17) (Tombaugh & McIntyre, 1992). Journal of Neurophysiology, 119(1), 134-144. Callahan, C. D., Young, P. L., & Barisa, M. T. (2005). Rutledge, R., Lentz, C. W., Fakhry, S., & Hunt, J. Hammond, F. M., Grattan, K. D., Sasser, H., Corrigan, J. D., Bushnik, T., & Zafonte, R. D. (2001). Health Technology Assessment, 2(14), i-iv, 1-74. Measurement properties of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) and improvement patterns during inpatient rehabilitation. B. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 36(3), 206-212. Awad, C. P. (2002). An expanded version of the MMSE, the modified mini-mental state examination (3MS) was developed by Teng & Chui (1987) increasing the content, number, and difficulty of items included in the assessment. Age, gender and level of education have all been reported to have an effect on CIQ scores. Mortality prediction of head Abbreviated Injury Score and Glasgow Coma Scale: analysis of 7,764 head injuries. (2003). Brain Injury, 20(12), 1235-1239. de Koning, I., Dippel, D. W., van Kooten, F., & Koudstaal, P. J. Kreutzer , J., Leininger , K., Doherty , K., & Waaland , P. (1987). Quality of Life Research, 8(1-2), 17-24. (1999). Summary-Community Integration Questionnaire, The DRS is comprised of eight items in four categories: i) level of consciousness; ii) cognitive abilities; iii) dependence on others; and iv) employability (Rappaport et al., 1982). Rehabilitation Psychology, 48(2), 67-76. A., Corrigan, J. D., Stange, M., & Rabold, D. (1999). Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78(11), 1254-1259. In a similar manner the QOLIBRI total score is calculated by summing all the responses, and then dividing by the actual number of responses. (1999). Rather than independence or dependence, the FIM assesses physical and cognitive disability in terms of burden of care, meaning the FIM score is intended to represent the burden of caring for that individual. Individual scores of ≥22 on the ABS indicate high agitation, conversely scores of ≤21 indicate low agitation (Corrigan & Mysiw, 1988). Rush, B. K., Malec, J. F., Moessner, A. M., & Brown, A. W. (2004). Demetriades, D., Kuncir, E., Murray, J., Velmahos, G. C., Rhee, P., & Chan, L. (2004). Tombaugh, T. N., & McIntyre, N. J. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22(2), 125-134. Wood-Dauphinee, S., Berg, K., Bravo, G., & Williams, J. I. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 83(SUPPL. The SWLS does not appear to be affected by gender or age (W.  Pavot & E.  Diener, 1993). Ring, H., Feder, M., Schwartz, J., & Samuels, G. (1997). Journal of Neurotrauma, 18(6), 575-584. (2001). (University of Missouri-Columbia). ), Cognitive Rehabilitation (pp. Further psychometric evaluation and revision of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory in a national sample. Neuropsychological assessment and the Disability Rating Scale (DRS): a concurrent validity study. McDowell, I. The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Establishing the validity of the neurobehavioral functioning inventory. Predictive value of Glasgow Coma Scale after brain trauma: change in trend over the past ten years. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 2(3), 51-63. Journal of Neurosurgery, 58(3), 321-325. Stroke, 29(5), 986-991. In: Kobeissy, FH editor. B., & Fiedler, R. C. (1993). Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 40(7), 697-702. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16(4), 318-329. Cohen, M. L., Holdnack, J. Mayo, N. E., Wood-Dauphinee, S., Cote, R., Durcan, L., & Carlton, J. Table 17.1 Selected Tools for Assessment of Outcome in ABI. Dikmen, S., Machamer, J., Miller, B., Doctor, J., & Temkin, N. (2001). Mykletun, A., Stordal, E., & Dahl, A. The scale may be assessing a construct more similar to “dynamic mobility” rather than balance per se (Inness et al., 2011). Gender roles, age and education differences all impact the CIQ differently. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(10), 1303-1308. Kidd et al. Relationship of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory to functional outcome and cognitive performance measures. The additional six, unscored items are intended to identify the presence of other factors that may be contributing to the individual’s current status (Malec & Lezak, 2003). Linacre, J. M., Heinemann, A. W., Wright, B. D., Granger, C. V., & Hamilton, B. A practical scale to assess cognition after head injury. Coping with the consequences of acquired brain injury can be difficult for everyone, including family members. Doninger, N. A., Heinemann, A. W., Bode, R. K., Sokol, K., Corrigan, J. D., & Moore, D. (2003). Acquired Brain Injury Acquired brain injuries (ABIs) aren't caused by trauma. Journal of Neurotrauma, 15(8), 573-585. It has been suggested that its low level of sensitivity derives from the emphasis placed on language items and a paucity of visual-spatial items (de Koning et al., 2000; de Koning et al., 1998; Grace et al., 1995; Suhr & Grace, 1999; Tombaugh & McIntyre, 1992). Dorman, P. J., Dennis, M., & Sandercock, P. (1999). Corrigan, J. Functional changes with rehabilitation of very severe traumatic brain injury survivors. Predicting outcome in brain-injured patients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(1), 149-161. The test can be obtained at no cost at ww.trauma.org/archive/scores/gcs.html. Journal of Neurotrauma, 15(8), 587-597. Predictive validity of the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) in acquired brain injury. (2002). Journal of Neurosurgery, 89(6), 939-943. (1992). In addition, Glasgow Coma scores can be obtained from the DRS (Hall, 1997). SASNOS – The St. Andrews-Swansea Neurobehavioural Outcome Scale (SASNOS) looks at some of the difficulties that people with acquired brain injury may experience. Assessment of scales of disability and handicap for stroke patients. There is no normative data available based on non-clinical populations (Awad, 2002; Witol et al., 1999). The CIQ was developed for inclusion in the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research TBI model systems National Data Base in the United States (Dijkers, 1997). Results: Seventy-eight items were identified and reduced to 47 items following expert panel discussion. Functional cognition index: A new instrument to assess cognitive disability after traumatic brain injury. The functional independence measure: its use to identify rehabilitation needs in stroke survivors. Zafonte, R. D., Mann, N. R., Millis, S. R., Black, K. L., Wood, D. L., & Hammond, F. (1997). Early prediction of outcome in head-injured patients. The FIM must be purchased from UDS and use of the FIM requires training and certification. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 8(2), 60-74. Lancet, 1(7905), 480-484. The GOS provides an overall assessment of outcome and does not provide detailed information with regard to specific disabilities or handicaps. Shumway-Cook, A., Baldwin, M., Polissar, N. L., & Gruber, W. (1997). Andresen, E. M. (2000). Respondents are instructed to rate each item using a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. The Glasgow Coma Scale: a mathematical critique. Lequerica, A. H., Chiaravalloti, N. D., Sander, A. M., Pappadis, M. R., Arango-Lasprilla, J. C., Hart, T., Banos, J. H., Marquez De La Plata, C. D., Hammond, F. M., & Sherman, T. E. (2013). Tate, R. L., Godbee, K., & Sigmundsdottir, L. (2013). The GCS is freely available, takes approximately 1 minute to administer and can be performed by all medical personnel (Oppenheim & Camins, 1992). However, it has also been demonstrated that consistent ratings among inexperienced raters may also be inaccurate. In addition, the ability to assign scores to outcome category with relatively little loss of information (Gouvier et al., 1987) provides a quick snapshot of the individual’s overall disability status (Hall et al., 1993). Brown, S. A., McCauley, S. R., Levin, H. S., Contant, C., & Boake, C. (2004). LaChapelle, D. L., & Finlayson, M. A. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(6), 1255-1260. Hall, K. M., & Johnston, M. V. (1994). Satisfaction with life scale: Analysis of factorial invariance, mean structures and reliability. One cannot assume that SWLS scores provide a direct assessment of emotional well-being. Mild TBI is a common injury in post-9/11 Veterans. A., & Thompson, A. J. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(7), 1128-1135. The total score for the FIM+FAM is 210, 112 for the motor FIM+FAM and 98 for the cognitive subscale (Gurka et al., 1999). Finch, E., Brooks, D., Stratford, P. W., & Mayo, N. E. (2002). Stroke, 29(1), 63-68. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20(5), 416-425. Neurology, 38(10), 1565-1568. The FIM is a widely used, well-accepted, generic measure of burden of care used in inpatient rehabilitation settings. (2002) reported that when the test is used to screen for problems of visual or verbal memory, orientation or attention acceptable cut-off scores could not be identified. Double Finalists at LaingBuisson Awards 2020. You have been redirected to this site because Westhope Care is now part of accomplish. Individuals may achieve considerable improvement in ability, but not change outcome category (Brooks et al., 1986). Matsushima, M., Yabe, I., Uwatoko, H., Shirai, S., Hirotani, M., & Sasaki, H. (2014). Brain Injury, 3(1), 27-34. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 67(6), 749-754. The scales have also been translated into seven languages and have been tested with each language cohort. The FIM is a composite measure consisting of 18 items assessing six areas of function (i.e. The GOS is the most widely used and accepted measure of outcome following head injury (Wade, 1992). Perhaps the most frequently encountered limitation of the GCS is untestable components in various patient groups. Even though the HADS has been shown to be a reliable measure of emotional distress post ABI, the cut-off scores and categories have not been shown to be useful in predicting probable presence or “caseness” of depression or anxiety (Whelan-Goodinson et al., 2009). Willer, B., Rosenthal, M., Kreutzer, J., Gordon, W., & Rempel, R. (1993). Acquired Brain Injury Any damage to the brain that occurs after birth Assessment An evaluation or estimation of an individual’s eligibility, function, impairments or needs Carer An individual who: (a) provides personal care, support and assistance to another individual who needs it because that other individual is a person A comparison of the PEDro and Downs and Black quality assessment tools using the acquired brain injury intervention literature NeuroRehabilitation . Many of the FAM items have been identified as difficult to score (adjustment to limitations, emotion, employability, community mobility, safety judgement, attention and speech intelligibility) (Turner-Stokes et al., 1999). Rehabilitation Psychology, 50(1), 65-70. Therefore, caution is advised when making generalizations to an ABI population. Individuals with acquired brain injury: Coma Recovery Scale: Assist in the differential diagnosis, prognostic assessment, treatment planning in patients with disorders of consciousness: 25 min: Reading article/manual: 23: None: Free: TBI, brain tumor, TBI with CVA, Hypoxic/ brain injury… Proxy use of the Canadian SF-36 in rating health status of the disabled elderly. Using the SF-36 with older adults: a cross-sectional community-based survey. Comparison of the Community Integration Questionnaire, the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique, and the Disability Rating Scale in traumatic brain injury. (2002) provide a good tutorial on issues for outcome measure selection. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77(5), 431-435. Ratings provided by any two or more of these groups can be combined to provide a more comprehensive composite score (Malec & Lezak, 2003).When administered by professional staff, the ratings should be completed by team consensus. Journal of Neurosurgery, 58(1), 27-37. Wade, D. T. (1992). It is believed that ≥6 categories on any rating scale obscures the distinction between the categories. Acta Neurochir (Wien), 141(3), 223-236. Gurka, J. Belmont, A., Agar, N., Hugeron, C., Gallais, B., & Azouvi, P. (2006). Satisfaction with life scale: analysis of factorial invariance for adolescents and elderly persons. Kaplan, C. P. (2001). Brain Injury, 15(8), 725-731. The MMSE consists of 11 simple questions or tasks. Kreutzer, J., Seel, R., & Marwitz, J. The Social Integration subscale is comprised of 6 items rated in the same manner as Home Integration whereas the Productivity subscale consists of 4 questions with responses weighted to provide a total of 7 points. Edwards, S. L. (2001). Additional categorical divisions are used to differentiate patients in terms of initial severity of head injury such that GCS scores 13-15 represent mild injury, scores 9-12 represent moderate injury, and scores ≤8 represent severe injury (Sternbach, 2000). The information available in the literature with regard to the reliability, validity or practical application of this scale is extremely limited and arises from the original authors only. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 96(4), 281-286. Activity, participation, and quality of life 6 months poststroke. (1994). A., Felmingham, K. L., Baguley, I. J., Schotte, D. E., Crooks, J., & Marosszeky, J. E. (1999). Pierre, U., Wood-Dauphinee, S., Korner-Bitensky, N., Gayton, D., & Hanley, J. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) results from the sudden application of mechanical forces to the brain. Zwick, D., Rochelle, A., Choksi, A., & Domowicz, J. Gujjar, A. R., Jacob, P. C., Nandhagopal, R., Ganguly, S. S., Obaidy, A., & Al-Asmi, A. R. (2013). The MPAI has undergone successive revisions based on ongoing Rasch and multivariate analyses. Both the scale and instructions for assigning error points are available in Levin et al. Administration by a trained interviewer takes approximately 10 minutes. Beauchamp, K., Baker, S., McDaniel, C., Moser, W., Zalman, D. C., Balinghoff, J., Cheung, A. T., & Stecker, M. (2001). Recently the HADS has been tested with those who have sustained an ABI. The BBS requires a minimal detectable change of 6 points at a 90% confidence interval (Stevenson, 2001). Lancet, 337(8740), 535-538. (1979) using patients with mild head injury as a reference group, it was determined that a score of 75 represented a level achieved by 92% of the standardization group. 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